The Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic method has the unique ability to measure all major physical properties of plasma ions, with resolution on the mm/nsec scales, in plasmas under LAPD conditions.
LIF and its variant Optical Tagging (OT) constitute the fastest-expanding measurement technology in basic plasma physics, and have made possible the characterization of new wave-particle processes in precisely the frequency regime of Alfven waves, i.e. when the dominant interaction is with ions.
The left image shows the pump and dye laser on an optical table. The right image shows 468 nm light coupled into fiber optic cable.